Last modified: 2022-03-05 by ian macdonald
Keywords: parana | siqueira campos |
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The municipality of Siqueira Campos (18,446 inhabitants in 2010; 27,804 ha) is
located 320 km north of Curitiba.
Siqueira Campos was established in 1863, as Colônia dos Mineiros, by 15 families coming from southern Minas Gerais led by brothers José Caetano de Carvalho, Caetano José de Carvalho and Inocêncio José de Carvalho, and their brothers-in-law, João de Oliveira Rocha and Pedro José Rocha. The name of the new settlement was coined by Captain Francisco José de Almeida Lopes. Scared by the memory of the Paraguayan War and in search for an isolated, safe place to live, several families joined the town, which was renamed to Côlonia Mineira by the municipality of Tomazina.
After the death of President Afonso Moreira Pena, the town was renamed to Penápolis in 1909.
The municipality of Côlonia Mineira was established by State Law No. 1,918 promulgated on 23 February 1920 and inaugurated on 23 September 1920. The municipality was renamed to Siqueira Campos by Decree No. 323 promulgated on 5 November 1930.
Lieutenant Antonio Siqueira Campos (1898-1930) was incorporated in 1916 in the 4th Infantry Company of the Realengo Military College in Rio de Janeiro. With his friends Eduardo Gomes and Estênio Caio de Albuquerque Lima, he formed a group of reformist cadets aspiring to the advent of a New Brazil that would succeed the Old Republic. Graduated in 1918, Siqueira Campos joined the Artillery Special Course, was promoted to the rank of 2nd Lieutenant in 1919, and was incorporated in 1920 to the 1st Coastal Battery headquartered in Fort Copacabana, commanded by Captain Euclides Hermes da Fonseca.
Siqueira Campos was one of the leaders of the uprising of Fort Copacabana against the federal government led by President Artur Bernades. Initiated on 5 July 1922, the insurrection failed to spread to the Realengo Military College and the Military City, so that the fort was soon the insurgents' last stronghold. The last defenders, subsequently known as "The 18 of the Fort", left the fort and marched against the loyalist troops. Severely injured during the fighting, Siqueira Campos went into exile to Montevideo (Uruguay) in 1923, and then in Buenos Aires (Argentina).
Siqueira Campos was involved in the uprising that broke out in 1924, exactly two years after the 1922 uprising; expelled from São Paulo, the rebels crossed river Paraná and occupied the town of Guaíra, where they were joined by exiled rebels from the 1922 uprising. On 29 October 1924, all border garrisons established along river Uruguay had rallied the rebels, except Itaqui. Lacking support, Siqueira Campos failed to seize Itaqui and withdrew to Argentina.
In November 1924, he joined the Prestes Column, established by Luís Carlos Prestes to march against Rio and overthrow the government, as commander of the 3rd Detachment, part of the Rio Grande Brigade. The column marched through Mato Grosso, Goiás, Minas Gerais, Maranhão, Piauí, Ceará, Rio Grande do Norte and Paraíba. On 12 February 1926, they entered Pernambuco, and, on 25 February, Bahia, where they were fought by the federal troops, the state police and the local population. Back to Piauí and Goiás, the Prestes Column entered Mato Grosso on 15 October and withdrew to Bolivia. Siqueira Campos carried on the fight, occupying Paracatu and eventually withdrawing on 23 March 1927 to Paraguay with his last 65 supporters. This ended the march of the Prestes Column, which had crossed 13 states and walked a distance of 25,000 km for the sake of the revolution.
Once again established in Buenos Aires, Siqueira Campos kept contacts with exiled revolutionaries in Bolivia and Uruguay. In 1928, he made several clandestine voyages in Rio and São Paulo to recruit "lieutenants" among cadets and young officers. Appointed organizer of the revolution in São Paulo, he set up in the town a supporting group in late 1929 and met Getúlio Vargas in early 1930. On 3 May 1930, the plane carrying Siqueira Campos and another four members of the plot crashed down into River Plate; Siqueira Campos died from a heart attack.
After the success of the 1930 Revolution, he was posthumously promoted to the rank of captain on 15 November 1930 and of major on 8 January 1931.
Centro de Pesquisa e Documentação de História Contemporânea do Brazil
The flag and arms of Siqueira Campos are prescribed by Municipal Law No. 327 promulgated on 2 September 2009.
The coat of arms of the municipality shall have the following characteristics.
I - Portuguese shield or a mount vert (green) with its crest horizontally touching the sinister edge of the shield.
II - A farmer proper holding a wooden staff looking dexter.
III - A chief azure (blue) a dove argent in frontal view.
IV - The shield supported dexter by a coffee branch fructed proper and sinister by a pine branch proper.
V - Beneath the shield a scroll argent inscribed in black letters "SIQUEIRA CAMPOS" in chief, "Sit Audax" in base dexter, and "Sicut Patres" in base sinister.
VI - The shield surmounted by a mural crown argent with eight towers, only five of of them visible, the three central ones being visible in full and the other ones visible in half, ports and windows sable (black).
The flag shall obey the following rules and dimensions.
I - The flag's length shall be 12 units.
III - The width shall be 8 units.
IV - The rectangle shall be vertically divided in the center, the left side shall be blue and the right side, green, in the same shades as the national flag.
V - The flag's center shall be charged with a white lozenge, 8 units in width and 7 units in length, inscribing the coat of arms on a white background.
Leis Municipais database
Ivan Sache, 9 February 2022