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Cannes International Regatta (France, April 1914)

Part 3 (continued): 6.50 meter yachts (National series)

Last modified: 2018-07-08 by ivan sache
Keywords: cannes |
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Presentation of the regatta

The international regatta organized on 14, 15, 18 and 20 April 1914 by Société des Régates Cannoises (now, Yacht Club de Cannes) attracted some of the most famous yachtsmen of the time. King of Spain Alfonso XIII, named President of Honor of the organizing yacht club, competed on his yacht Tonino.
The participant's list (leaflet), kept in the municipal archives, gives for each competitor the yacht club of affiliation, as well as the names of the boat, of the shipyard where she was built, and of the architect who designed her. The owner's private signals are also illustrated.

Ivan Sache, 25 January 2018

6.50 meter yachts (National series) (continued)

Lorenzi Brothers - Paula


Lorenzi Brothers' private signal - Image by Ivan Sache, 31 January 2018

11. Lorenzi Brothers - Paula, Sporting Club de Menton.
The private signal is yellow with a blue square diamond in the center.

Ivan Sache, 31 January 2018

Maurice Pictet de Rochemont - Thisbé


Maurice Pictet de Rochemont's private signal - Image by Ivan Sache, 31 January 2018

12. Maurice Pictet de Rochemont - Thisbé, Société Nautique de Genève.
The private signal is horizontally divided in seven stripes, in turn green and white.

Maurice Pictet de Rochemont (1870-1940) was a founding member in 1902 of the Cercle de la Voile de la Société de Navigation de Genève, subsequently renamed to Société Nautique de Genève. He was the grand-grandson of the agronomist and statesman Charles Pictet de Rochemont (1755-1824), who negotiated in the Congresses of Paris, Vienne and Turin, the borders of the Republic of Geneva and the neutrality of Switzerland.

Ivan Sache, 31 January 2018

HRH the Prince Ph. de Bourbon - Poblet


HRH the Prince Ph. de Bourbon's private signal - Image by Ivan Sache, 31 January 2018

13. HRH the Prince Ph. de Bourbon - Poblet, Union des Yachtsmen de Cannes.
The private signal is horizontally divided red-blue with a yellow fleur-de-lis in the center.

Prince Philip of Bourbon-Two Sicilies (1885-1949) was the 10th of the 12 children of HRM Alphonso of Bourbon-Two Sicilies (1841-1934), Count of Caserte and Head of the House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, and of Maria Antonietta of Bourbon-Two Sicilies (1851-1918). Alfonso exiled to Cannes in 1871, settling the Marie-Thérèse mansion.

Ivan Sache, 31 January 2018

Paul Signac - Balkis


Paul Signac's private signal - Image by Ivan Sache, 31 January 2018

14. Paul Signac - Balkis, Société Nautique de Saint-Tropez.
The private signal is horizontally divided red-blue with a yellow fleur-de-lis in the center.

The Neo-Impressionist painter Paul Signac (1863-1935) developed the Pointillist style and completed the Divisionist theory elaborated by his mentor, Georges Seurat (1859-1891). Born in a rich family that supplied the Imperial cavalry with boots and saddles, Signac was also a passionate yachtsman. When living in Asnières, on the bank of the Seine, he acquired his first boat, named Manet-Zola-Wagner and met another painter fond of yachting, the naval architect Gustave Caillebotte (1848-1894). In 1891, he launched the 11-m boat Olympia, named after Manet's controversial painting, and won several regattas in Brittany.
With his wife, Berthe, and a seaman, Signac sailed in 1892 from Brittany to Bordeaux and joined the Mediterranean Sea via the Canal du Midi, expecting to meet his friend Henri-Edmond Cross (1856-1910) in Le Lavandou. Since the port was too shallow for his yacht, Signac sailed to Saint-Tropez and settled in the La Hune mansion. The villagers, mostly fishers, nicknamed him "The Photographer", since they had never met any painter.
Signac introduced Saint-Tropez to the Paris jet-set decades before Brigitte Bardot, inviting there his friends, the painters Maximilien Luce (1892), Henri Matisse (1904), Albert Marquet (1905), and Maurice Denis (1906), and the anarchist art critique Félix Fénéon, who used to walk into the streets of the village wearing a yellow night suit. Every visit to Signac included a tour in the bay on the Olympia. The painter would spend the summer season (May-September) in Saint-Tropez for the next 20 years.

Signac joined the Union des Yachts Français in 1892 and established in 1893 the Société Nautique de Saint-Tropez, which reached financial autonomy only in 1899. He subsequently purchased or designed himself some 30 sailboats and motorboats.
In 1913, Signac and his wife split but would remain goods friends until the end of their lives. He proposed Berthe to stay in Saint-Tropez whilst moving to Antibes with his second wife, the painter Jeanne Selmersheim-Desgrange. Signac obtained official recognition in 1915, being appointed Painter of the Navy.
Signac portrayed the scenic bay of Saint-Tropez in several marine paintings; oddly enough, most views are taken from the land and not from the sea, while he spent most of his time yachting. Signac himself has been portrayed steering his boat by Théo Van Rysselberghe (Paul Signac à la barre de son bateau, 1897) and Pierre Bonnard (Signac sur son bateau, 1927).
[Voiles et voiliers, 14 May 2015]

In 1922, Maurice Person, Municipal Councillor of Saint-Tropez, established a painting museum (Museon Tropelen), which attracted little local interest and was disbanded after his death in 1926. His widow, supported by the industrial and art collector Georges Grammont (1898-1956), transferred the collection to the Annonciade chapel in 1937. In 1955, Grammont offered his whole collection to the French State, provided it will be permanently exhibited in the chapel. The "nicest of the small French museums" (website) now presents 262 paintings by Seurat, Signac, Cross, Bonnard, Vuillard, Matisse, Derain, de Vlaminck, Marquet, Dufy, Camoin..., admired every year by more than 50,000 visitors.

Ivan Sache, 31 January 2018

Charles Navoni - Souvenir


Charles Navoni's private signal - Image by Ivan Sache, 1 February 2018

15. Charles Navoni - Souvenir, Sporting Club de Menton.
The private signal is a blue pennant with the red letters "LCN".

Ivan Sache, 1 February 2018

Marius Berliet - Caprice


Marius Berliet's private signal - Image by Ivan Sache, 1 February 2018

16. Marius Berliet - Caprice, Union des Yachtsmen de Cannes.
The private siognal is white with the emblem of Berliet of the time, made of the front view of a locomotive.
Marius Berliet used to stay in Cannes, where he owned several plots. He had to sell all of them after the First World War but returned to Cannes in 1925, using the Croisette promenade as an open-air showroom for his new models and exhibiting there his social success.
Berliet adopted the locomotive emblem in 1906 following the licensing contract signed with the American Locomotive Corporation. The design was simplified in 1907. The subsequent versions of the emblem progressively stylized the representation of the locomotive; in its last version, the locomotive was reduced to an arrow pointing downward superimposed with a circle.
[Mémoires industrielles]

Marius Berliet (1866-1949) was born in Lyon from a family owning a textile workshop in the borough of La Croix-Rousse. The Berliet were followers of the Petite Église (Little Church), a group of French Catholics, mostly from Lyon, who rejected the Concordat signed in 1801 by Pope Pius VII and Napoléon Bonaparte. Considered as schismatic, the Little Church counted up to 100,000 members and vanished in the first decades of the 20th century.
Self-taught, Marius Berliet improved the machinery of the family workshop, and, accordingly, its productivity. In spite of his father's opposition, he designed his first engine in 1894 and his first automobile in 1895. In March 1899, following the death of this father and the taking over of the family business by one of his brothers, Marius Berliet established his own workshop in partnership with the engineer Pierre Desgouttes (1874-1955). He soon purchased the Audibert car factory in Monplaisir, producing in 1903 full-sized, four-seated cars. In 1905, the Berliet cars won several races; the same year, the American Locomotive Corporation (ALCO) purchased for 500,000 francs (~1.5 million euros) the license on the Berliet chassis. The money allowed Berliet to build a brand new factory in Vénissieux and obtain the support of banks. As opposed to his competitors who designed unique models for rich customers, Berliet, inspired by Ford and Taylor, initiated the serial production of cars ("the customer pays and leaves the factory with the car of my choice").

In 1906, Berliet manufactured his first coach, used to transport tourists between Grenoble and the Lautaret Pass. At the same time, Marius Berliet invested in trucks (French, poids lourds, lit, "heavy weight"). In 1913, the 3,500 workers employed in the huge factory (47,000 sq. m) produced 3,000 vehicles, using English, American and German machine tools. Berliet managed its own apprentice school for workers and drivers, and seven branches, in Algiers and Lisbon included. Differing from the other industrialists of Lyon by his modern views on mechanization and production organization - but agreeing with them on the enforcement of strict anti-strike rules -, Marius Berliet also expressed his difference by refusing "social" connections with the local entrepreneurial bourgeoisie. He let build in 1911 the Berliet mansion, decorated in Art Nouveau by Jacques Grüber and Louis Majorelle, from the Nancy School; registered as an Historical Monument, the mansion is the seat of the Berliet Foundation.

During the First World War, the Berliet factories appeared to be very suitable for the mass production of ammunition and military vehicles. Berliet produced 6,000 shells per day. The machines used to produce car wheels were adapted to produce tank gun turrets; thousand tanks were produced within nine months in 1918. The 22CBA truck, used in Verdun on the Sacred Way was nicknamed the "victory truck".
Berliet increased his factories, creating an industrial town in Vénissieux. On an area of 212 ha, Berliet set up factories covering 23 ha (30% bigger then the Ford factory in Detroit), separated from each others by avenues of 30 m in width crossing at right angle. The site was served by 28 km of railways. A steel factory was established on the site, which had also its own supply in gas, electricity and water. The cité Berliet was composed of worker's estates and gardens, cooperative shops, a library and vocational schools.

At the end of the war, Berliet lost its main customer, the French Army. Production was focused on a single model of truck (5 tons) and a single model of car (Étoile d’argent, 15 hp). Production coasts were higher than sales, which caused massive firing of workers and strikes. In 1921, Berliet could not pay the tax on his war profits and the company was placed under the tutorship of an external board. Refusing partnerships with his competitors, such as Citroën, Berliet developed new models, such as a six-wheeled truck, and open branches in London, Athens, Barcelona, Brussels and Istanbul.
In 1929, Marius Berliet took over again all his factories after having paid all his debts. Production of cars, coaches and trucks was developed, targeting North Africa. Berliet resisted the economic crisis by equipping most of his trucks with diesel engines, inaugurated in 1931, and abandoning the production of cars. In 1939, Berliet manufactured 8,000 diesel engines equipping 11 truck models (5 to 14 tons). Strikes broke up in March 1936, supported by the Communist Mayor of Vénissieux. Berliet's paternalistic management was criticized, whilst his connections with the traditionalist right parties and the Action française were highlighted. In 1938, Berliet rejected the industrial mobilization plan set up by the French state, which allocated only shell production to him.

The Berliet factory was requisitioned on 30 September 1939. Shell production was stopped on 17 June 1940. Lyon belonged to the Free Zone but the Berliet factories had to produce material for the German army, according to the compensation rule issued on 10 February 1941 by François Lehideux, State Secretary for National Production. The Berliet factories became a strategic place both for the German army and the anti-German Resistance. A massive strike was organized in 14 October 1942; at the end of 1943, the Mouvements unis de résistance organized the sabotage of material dedicated to the German army. In March 1944, Marius Berliet refused to stop production or to sabotage the factory. Vénissieux was bombed on 1-2 May 1944 by the US Air Force; the worker's estate, mostly hit during the raids, was visited a few days later by Marshal Pétain.

After the liberation, 32 industrialist from Lyon were sentenced for economical collaboration with the Germans. Marius Berliet was arrested on 4 September 1944, whilst the factories, confiscated, were managed for the next years under the principle of worker's co-management. In 1946, Marius Berliet, sentenced to two years in jail, was exiled to Cannes because of his health, while two of his sons, Paul and Jean, were sentenced to five years in jail.
The emergence of the Cold War stopped the projects of nationalization of the Berliet factories; on 28 December 1949, the Berliet family was pardoned by the State Council and rendered all its assets. Paul Berliet (1918-2012) took the leadership of the company; in 1959, Berliet produced half of the French industrial vehicles, but much less coaches than Chausson. The family kept control of the company shares and modernized the factories, creating a research center in Saint-Priest.
The paternalistic system set up by Marius Berliet did not prevent a succession of strikes and representative worker's unions had to be recognized. In 1967, 97% of the shares of Berliet were acquired by Citroën; Paul Berliet remained CEO, but without executive power. Citroën organized the dispersal of the production units, which ended the social system established in the Cité Berliet, which was resettled by white collars. In 1974, Citroën sold Berliet to Renault, then state-controlled. Berliet was merged with Saviem to form the Renault-Véhicules industriels holding and the Berliet brand disappeared in 1980.
[Dominique Lejeune. 2917. Marius et Paul Berliet : usines lyonnaises et véhicules industriels. hal-01481986]

Ivan Sache, 1 February 2018

L. Rouher - Minne-II

17. L. Rouher - Minne-II, Club Nautique de Nice.
The private signal is gray? - the source is not conclusive- with a yellow saltire

Ivan Sache, 1 February 2018

J. Mounier - M'Amie-VIII


J. Mounier's private signal - Image by Ivan Sache, 1 February 2018

18. J. Mounier - M'Amie-VIII, Sociét&ecute; des Régates d'Antibes.
The private signal is white with four red rectangles placed step-wise along the descending diagonal.

Ivan Sache, 1 February 2018

Baron Von Brunning - Marion


Baron Von Brunning's private signal - Image by Ivan Sache, 1 February 2018

19. Baron Von Brunning - Marion, Union des Yachtsmen de Cannes.
The private signal is quartered blue and white.

Ivan Sache, 1 February 2018

Marquis Franco dal Pozzo d'Annone - Vestale-IV


Marquis Franco dal Pozzo d'Annone's private signal - Image by Ivan Sache, 1 February 2018

20. Marquis Franco dal Pozzo d'Annone - Vestale-IV, Regio Verbano Yacht Club.
The private signal is yellow with a red well (Italian, pozzo).

Ivan Sache, 1 February 2018