Pentagons commonly appear on Indonesian flags. The pentagon is a symbol of Pancasila, the national philosophy (in the past it was called national ideology), which consists of five principles. The word Pancasila itself means Five Principles/Five Bases Panca = five, sila = base/principle). It is not always a pentagon that is used to represent Pancasila's principles. In general, anything
five-sided could be used to represent those principles. Another most common used emblem in Indonesian heraldry is a five-petaled jasmine flower, the national flower of Indonesia.
Sammy Kanadi, 13 September 2000
The Pancasila is also symbolised by the five parts of the coat-of-arms.
star in the center: belief in the one and only God (1st Sila)
chain: just and civilized humanity (2nd Sila)
banyan tree: the unity of Indonesia (3rd Sila)
head of the bull: democracy guided by the inner wisdom of deliberations of representatives (4rd Sila)
paddy and cotton ears:social justice for all the Indonesian people (5th Sila)
Source: Indonesia Handbook 1989 Mark Sensen, 14 September 2000