Last modified: 2017-11-11 by andrew weeks
Keywords: kluczbork |
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Flagdescription: The Town's Flag is a rectangular piece of cloth in the width to length ratio 5:8. The flag is divided into two horizontal strips. Upper strip is wide (includes the narrow strip 6,5 times) and red, lower strip is narrow and white. In the central part of the upper red strip there is located imagine (in Late-Gothic style) of the Kluczbork's coat of arms.
Arms: Kluczbork's Coat of Arms is a imagine of red castle with three towers crowned with battlements and located on the cornice. The middle tower is the highest and below it there is a gateway with yellow opened doors. Over the battlements of lower towers and in the middle of the highest tower there are black crosses. Background is white.
History: Archaeological findings (stone arrowheads, axes) provide evidence
that this region was settled as far back as the Stone Age (1700 b.c.).
The origin of Kluczbork is connected with Chivalrous Order of the Crusaders
of Red Star, which come from Palestine to Bohemia in 1217, where they beyond
fight with Moslems devoted themselves to the education and care of the
sick (Hospitalers). In the thirteenth century, they reached the Silesia
and in 1253 they achieved from duke of Wroclaw Henry III, permission to
location town under the Magdeburg Law in - so far - marketplace settlement.
Since 1274 Kluczbork became the main business and administrative centre
of the Kluczbork Land.
- In 1430 (during the Hussite War) Kluczbork was occupied by Hussites. The town became a target attacks by Anti-Hussite forces. As a result of negotiations Kluczbork was governed by Dukes of Oleśnica.
- In 1627 (during the Thirty Years War) Kluczbork was besieged by Union Army, which military actions caused devastation, plunder and burning the town. After ending the war, Kluczbork had a great chance for development. In years 1660-1671 the order Arians (from Poland) found shelter in Kluczbork. They organized here synods twice (1663, 1668).
- In 1675, after the death of the last Duke of Brześč, the Habsburgs took possession of Kluczbork. In 1740 Kluczbork together with Upper and Lower Silesia went to Prussia. For almost 200 years Kluczbork Land remained under Prussian reign.
In 1816 Kluczbork was made as a county town. In the first half of the 19th century the building of railway line and roads were originated, hence Kluczbork became important railway knot in the northern part of Opole district. Simultaneously, the system of education was developed .
In 1858 training college for bilingual teachers (Polish and German) and in 1863 municipal high school were opened.
- Till the end of XIX century Kluczbork Land was characterized as a rural region. The beginning of the 20th century brought significant industry development. In 1905 "Famak" Machinery and Equipment Factory (metal factory) was opened. The brewery, printing house, sugar factory, brickyard, modern slaughterhouse and furniture factory were arisen.
- After the First World War the border of Weimar Republic with Poland was defined few kilometres from Kluczbork, in this way Kluczbork Land was border terrain. After Upper Silesia division in 1921, Kluczbork district has belonged to Germany, since 1933 - to the Third Reich - till 20th January 1945, when Soviet and Ukrainian armies marched into the town.
- Since 1945 (18th March), after the end the Second World War, Kluczbork has belonged to Poland.
Source: city website.
Old German name: Kreuzburg in Oberschlesien.
Jarig Bakker, 14 Apr 2008