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On the eve of the 65th Anniversary of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, a
major correction to our pages is urgently necessary.
In 2001, I have submitted to the editor of Polish pages a flag supposedly flown by ZOB (Jewish Fighting Organization) alongside the Polish one at their headquarters on Mila Street. It was based on accounts and statements of various ZOB survivors (Edelman and Zukerman included) that ZOB hoisted a Zionist flag and the Polish one over their main bunker.
The flag which I sent was one of the most popular among the Zionists in Poland, since there was no description of the supposedly actual one available from any sources.
In the light of recent developments it turned out as just a myth.
Dr.Marek Edelman admitted, somewhat reluctantly, in a series of recent interviews (among them in one given to the Swedish journalist Lennart Lindskog) that there was no Jewish or Polish flag over the bunker on Mila Street. In fact, the only flag the ZOB fighters unfurled during the Uprising was the red one, and that's was done inside the bunker while singing "Internationale", and the flag was placed on the wall.
In the decades since the Uprising, the communist propaganda machine in Poland almost succeeded in erasing the memory of the other organization participating in the Uprising - ZZW (Jewish Military Union).
To the lesser degree it happened also in Israel due to the leftist governmentś attitude toward the Betar movement.
But now, in free Poland, and thanks to the numerous researchers (Dr.Moshe Arens, former foreign and defence minister of Israel,included), the full truth is being unveiled pointing to the secondary role of the ZOB (not taking away any admiration of their heroism) to that of ZZW.
ZZW (Jewish Military Union) was created just months after the September 1939 campaign and was recognized (in December 1939) by the Commander-in-Chief of Polish Armed Forces, Gen.Wladyslaw Sikorski, as part and parcel of Polish underground army, albeit fully autonomous. The organizers of ZZW were either experienced officers of the Polish Army (like Lt.Dawid Moryc Apfelbaum) or trained militarily by the retired Polish Army officers in Betar camps, prior to war, members of Irgun Zvei Leumi (like Pawel Frenkiel).
The reason they hoisted the Jewish and Polish flags was that they were as much Jewish as Polish an organization and to underline the Polish-Jewish Brotherhood-in-Arms.
ZZW offered to ZOB unification prior to Uprising under the condition of the military leadership being in hands of one of their own officer, but it was rejected by ZOB, which didn't have a single member with even basic military experience and ,disparagingly, called the ZZW "a bunch of fascists".
Gen.Stroop, the commandant of the assault on Ghetto, reported only 19 fatal casulties of his forces.
The Jewish fighters claimed 1,000, but the most fair assessment is c. 300 of which c. 30 can be attributed to ZOB and the rest to ZZW.
ZZW's military skills can be also illustrated by the tactically brilliant placement of the heavy machine gun, which successfully kept in check the advancement of the German, Latvian, Lithuanian and Ukrainian troops for a pretty long while.
ZOB restricted their membership only to the members of leftist and ultra-leftist parties, while ZZW was open in the beginning of the Uprising to anybody who wanted to fight and numbered estimated 1,500 fighters, including not only Betarists, but also socialists,chassidic Jews and even some communists.
They were also supported by the unit of the Military Police of the Polish Home Army (AK), who entered the Ghetto and participated in fighting reliving exhausted Jewish fighters. Commanding officer of that unit, Capt.(later Major) Henryk Iwanski, lost two of his sons and the brother inside the Ghetto and was himself wounded.
The other unsung heroes of the Uprising will finally receive the recognition they deserve, tomorrow, when Moshe Arens will take part in unveiling of the plaque commemorating them at 7 Muranowska Street.
At the same time, President Shimon Peres will pay his respects at the site of the ZOB bunker at Mila Street.
Already, the wrongs were being corrected, when few years ago, Polish President (then Mayor of Warsaw) renamed one of the squares in Wola District after Maj.Dawid Moryc Apfelbaum ( he was promoted to this rank posthumously immediately after the Uprising by the order of the C-in-C of the Polish Armed Forces in the West, Gen.Sosnkowski.)
It has to be added, that at the same time, Gen.Sosnkowski awarded postumously the highest Polish military decoration, the cross of Virtuti Militari to the heroic ZOB soldier, Michal Klepfisz.(Mordechaj Anielewicz also was awarded that decoration in 1944).
As the shade of blue of the Jewish flag raised by ZZW is concerned, there is no unanimity among those who witnessed it.
While visiting Warsaw two years ago I did interview several elderly people who have seen it, but there was no consensus, although majority tended to believe it was light blue - nobody was absolutely sure.
The woman quoted by Moshe Arens, who lived just across the street from the wall of ghetto, described young men who planted the flags on the roof, but doesn't mention the shade of blue - just blue.
The red flag of ZOB was supposedly captured by the Germans but I couldn't find anything about it's whereabouts.
Chrystian Kretowicz, 14 Apr 2008
I'm not quite sure about the Fighting Organization flag. It wasn't a
simple Zionist (Israeli) flag?
Nathan Lamm, 11 Nov 2001
Interesting to see that a Revisionist group uses a plain two stipes
BETAR usually used flags based on the Zionist flags with inscriptions.
Dov Gutterman, 15 Sep 2001
Yes, it is quite puzzling. I am familiar with the fact that Betar used
a variety of Zionist flags with slogans and images on it before the WW
II and in Palestine, but it is also beyond the doubt that Pawel Frankel's
ZZW units raised the white and blue bicolor (together with Polish flag)
over their positions in the Warsaw Ghetto in the Uprising.
What was the reason for not using typical Betar flags?
I can't speculate on it. Maybe somebody knows, and will be kind enough to give us an input on this question ?
Chris Kretowicz, 15 Sep 2001
A possible link to the Polish (light blue
replacing red)? They *were* trying to get Polish support.
Nathan Lamm, 11 Nov 2001
I came across a book in the store today entitled "Two Flags". It's a history of the ZZW, one of the groups fighting the Nazis in the Warsaw Ghetto, whose flag is discussed here. The cover shows (as illustrations, not photos) two flags, one white over blue (dark blue, not light as on FOTW), the other white over red. On the FOTW page, I suggest that the arrangement of the former may have been chosen to complement the Polish flag (although, I'll admit, it seems to have been common among Zionist flags of the era), and, while I could find no reference to the matching flags in a brief skimming of the book, the title would seem to indicate that someone associated with the ZZW saw the similarity as well.
One more point: I don't think we should underestimate the fact that
in trying times, a simple blue/white flag would be much simpler to make
than the actual Zionist/Israeli one. I've seen film and photos of Jewish
survivors of a concentration camp- Buchenwald, I think- who made just such
a flag immediately after they were liberated, by sewing together white
and blue cloth. I don't recall if it was held vertically or horizontally,
but I doubt that was even thought of- the symbolism was important on its
Nathan Lamm, 15 Jan 2008
During the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising of April-May, 1943, The ZOB (Zydowska Organizacja Bojowa or Jewish Fighting Organization or Yidische Kampf Organizatzion) led by Mordechaj Anielewicz and composed of members of leftist and ultra leftist youth organizations:
The Jewish Council (Judenrat) of Warsaw Ghetto was flying a white flag with the blue shield of David in the center. The Jewish Police (or Ordnungsdienst) were wearing shield of David on their caps or berets. All of the "residents" of the Ghetto were required to wear white armbands with the shield of David. The president of the Judenrat in Warsaw Ghetto was dr Adam Czerniakow, a controversial and tragic figure,who commited suicide in 1942 after realizing his policy of appeasement and collaboration couldn't save any lives, especially those of children. The Warsaw Ghetto Judenrat issued paper money, which was, of course, absolutely worthless outside the walls.
The one with the ironic title of "king" or "emperor" was the president
of the Judenrat in the Lodz (Litzmanstadt) Ghetto in Central
Poland. His name was Chaim Mordechaj Rumkowski and he was generally despised
and hardly has any apologists in contrast to Dr.Czerniakow in Warsaw. In
his "realm", the Nazis let him issue postage stamps with his portrait in
the upper right corner, print paper money and even mint two coins: the
aluminum 10 Mark and the magnesium 5 Mark.
Chris Kretowicz and Dov Gutterman, 3 Sep 2001
The Warsaw Ghetto page on FOTW states that the Judenrat flew
a blue Shield of David on white, while the resistance flew a standard Israeli/Zionist
flag. On NBC's current series about the revolt, they show the revolt flying
the first flag (almost square), however. Any info?
Nathan Lamm, 6 Nov 2001
The NBC miniseries is taking a lot of liberties with the historical
truth about the events in Warsaw Ghetto, of which their depiction of the
flag is only one of many and least significant, so believe rather FOTW
pages than NBC.
Chris Kretowicz, 6 Nov 2001
Is it known what happened to the flags flown over the Warsaw Ghetto
during the Uprising of 1943. I am curious as to if there is any information
about where those flags are located, or even if they survived the Uprising.
I know a few flags were captured but other than that I am not sure.
Robert Ballard, 28 Feb 2003
Considering the savagery and brutality of the suppresion of the Warsaw
Ghetto Uprising it is very unlikely any of the flags could survive. Soon,
the new museum, dedicated solely to the memory of this uprising, is due
to open in Warsaw and, if any of the flags survived, it would be the place
to find them.
Chrystian Kretowicz, 1 Mar 2003