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Russian Volunteers 1917-1920

Southern Whites, White Russians, Russian Civil War

Last modified: 2023-07-22 by valentin poposki
Keywords: russian empire | white army civil war | caucasus muslim |
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image by Gregory Ganzburg, 20 December 2012
located by Pete Loeser, 7 July 2023

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Introduction: Russian Volunteers 1917-1920

The Volunteer Army (Добровольческая армия) was a White Army active in South Russia during the Russian Civil War (1917-1920). It was organized under the command of General Mikhail Alekseyev and General Lavr Kornilov in Novocherkassk. The Volunteer Army active against Bolsheviks and the Makhnovists on the Southern Front and the Ukrainian War of Independence. In 1919 it was made part of the Armed Forces of South Russia, becoming the largest force of the White movement until it was merged with the Army of Wrangel in March 1920. (source)
Pete Loeser, 6 July 2023

Markov Division Flag 1920
Марковская дивизия, Markovtsy

It should be noted that the original flag used by the Markov Division in 1917-1920 had a much narrower white saltire than is found on the modern Russian Volunteer Corps/Azov Regiment variant. I suspect the white border shown around Gregory Ganzburgs rendition of the original 1917 Markov Division Flag did not exist on the actual flag but was added by the illustrator himself.
Source: Wikipedia: Markovtsy
Pete Loeser, 6 July 2023

image by Viktor Lomantsov, 7 July 2023

The black flag with a white saltire, originally used by the Markovites (Марковцы, Markovtsy), is for one in a series of the White Movement units during the Russian Civil War which were named after General Sergei Leonidovich Markov (1878-1910). This particular Markovite flag is derived from the Russian naval ensign. Its black and white colors symbolize the readiness to die for Russia and the "resurrection of the homeland," respectively.
It should also be noted that Viktor Lomantsovs' Vexillographia presents a flag with no border and a saltire with the width in between those drawn by Mr Ganzburg and I on the Russian invasion of Ukraine page. (Wikipedia: Markovtsy).
Tomislav Todorovic, 7 July 2023

1st Markovsky Regiment

image by Viktor Lomantsov, 7 July 2023 (source).
2nd officer General of the Markov Regiment

"The 1st Markovsky Regiment also had a black regimental badge with a white St. Andrew's cross. In the book Markov and Markovtsy (edited by V. Tsvetkov) there is also a photograph of the badge of the 2nd officer general of the Markov regiment - a black badge, in the middle there is a white contour St. George-shaped cross with the letter "M" in the core."
Viktor Lomantsov, 7 July 2023

Markovsky Regiment "Nikolaev Banners"

inverse side    reverse side
image by Viktor Lomantsov, 7 July 2023 (source).

After the death of Lieutenant General S.L. Markov, the regiment was renamed the 1st Officer General Markov Regiment. In 1919, the 2nd and 3rd Markovsky regiments were formed. In October 1919, the Markov regiments were consolidated into the Officer Division of General Markov. After fighting at the end of 1919, the division suffered heavy losses. In February 1920, the division was reorganized into a regiment, a cavalry battalion and an artillery battalion. In March, the division was again restored, it included the 1st, 2nd, 3rd Infantry Regiments of General Markov, then the 4th General Markov Infantry Regiment was formed. After the evacuation of the division in 1920, the 1st Officer General Markov Regiment was formed from its remnants. White and black were chosen for the 1st Officer Battalion as early as December 1917
The Nikolaev banner of the infantry regiments of the division of General S.L. Markov had a monogram "M" on the back. The color of the border is black.
A photograph of the banner of the Markovsky regiment was used on this illustration for the article by A. Pronin The Three Wars of Peter Wrangel
image by Viktor Lomantsov, 7 July 2023 (source).