Last modified: 2018-10-28 by zoltán horváth
Keywords: zheleznogorsk | krasnoyarsk |
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"Железного́рск (English: Zheleznogorsk) (formerly known as Красноярск-26
(English: Krasnoyarsk-26), formally labeled as Геральдическое описание герба
ЗАТО Железногорск гласит (English: ZATO Zheleznogorsk) is a closed town in
Krai, Russia, with a developed nuclear industry. In modern Russia, such places are officially known as "closed administrative-territorial formations" (закрытые административно-территориальные образования, zakrytye administrativno-territorial'nye obrazovaniya, or ЗАТО ZATO for short).
In the late 1940s there was a need to establish a nuclear production plant close to a river or a lake (for reactor cooling purposes) and as far away of the border as possible through решению 1 (English: Administrative Ressolution No. 1) of the Совете народных комиссаров СССР (English: Council of People's Commissars of the USSR). According to scientists the main purpose was to have a 200 m thick land cover (underground) in order to protect the installations from a bomb and/or missile attack. As suggested by Заместитель Председателя Совета Министров СССР (English: Deputy Chariman of the Council of Ministers of the URSS), Авраамий Павлович Завенягин (English: Avraami Pavlovich Zavenyagin), the location was chosen for its mountain range close to the Енисей (English: Yenisei) river. In May 1949, by order of the Stalin, an expedition of the Специальное проектное бюро "Двигательстрой", ГСПИ-11 (English: Special Design Bureau "Dvigatelstroy", GSPI-11), established on October 21, 1933, currently the Открытое акционерное общество «Восточно-Европейский головной научно-исследовательский и проектный институт энергетических технологий, ОАО "ГИ ВНИПИЭТ) (English: All-Russian Scientific Research And Design Institute of Energy Technology, VNIPIET, also Open Joint Stock Company "East European Leading Research and Design Institute of Energy Technologies", abbreviated OJSC "GI" VNIPIET ") (official website: http://vnipiet.ru) arrived for the final selection of the construction site.
The surrounding villages of Атаманово (English: Atamanovo), Додоново (English: Dodonovo), Куваршино (English: Kuvarshino), Шивера (English: Shivera), Балчуг (English: Balchug) and Белорусскую (English: Belorusskaya) were also explored, Додоново (English: Dodonovo) being chosen for the establishment of the factory and the future city.
On August 20, 1949, on the banks of the Yenisei river, near Dodonovo town, the Мария Ульянова (English: María Uliánova) (boat) arrived with a construction battalion made up of 800 soldiers under the command of Lt. Col. Курносых (English: Kurnosykh ). The battalion had been relocated from the city of Глазова (English: Glazov) for preliminary construction of the (nuclear plant) workers' village.
On October 1949 the first construction phase was completed.
On February 26, 1950 by Decree of the Council of Ministers of the URSS, it was decreed the construction of "(plant) N(umber) 815": Planta para la producción de tellurium-120, as according to (the) Decree (N 5.060-1943) of the Совета министров СССР (English: Council of Ministers of the URSS) of October 29, 1949, to build and underground (facility) with a depth of no less than 200-230m. For the approval of the construction of the plant N 815 on the Yenisei (river), on the right shore, 50 km down of Krasnoyarsk, the following settlements will be established:
1950 - 10,000 (inhabitants)
1951 - 30,000 (inhabitants)
1952 - 40,000 (inhabitants)
The plant first stage should be completed by June 1, 1950"
In March 1950, a group of 22 Designers of "Lengiprostroi" (today Санкт-Петербургский государственный архитектурно-строительный университет (СПбГАСУ) , English: Saint-Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SPbGASU), official website: http://www.spbgasu.ru) landed on the future site of construction and on April 15, 1950 Major General М.М. Царевский (English: M.M. Tsarevsky), начальник Управления строительства (English: Head of the Construction Department) arrived in Первомайскую (English: Pervomayskoy ) to build a secret facility in Chelyabinsk-40 (today Ozyorsk.
In May 1950, by order of the МВД СССР (English: Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR), the "Гранитный". (English: "Granite") Forced Labor Camp was established. On August 15, 1950 the first residential quarters were established. The plan management was established as была организована дирекция комбината под названием "Восточная контора Главстроя СССР" (English: Eastern office of Glavstroy of the USSR ). The plant, currently the Mining and Chemical Combine (formal name: Федеральная ядерная организация «Горно-химический комбинат», ГХК, English: The Federal Nuclear Organization "Mining and Chemical Combine", MCC) (official website: http://www.sibghk.ru) is part of Rosatom.
The old coat of arms (http://s.newslab.ru/photoalbum/4286/m/49794.jpg) features the bear with hair in a less stylized manner.
The old flag http://s.newslab.ru/photoalbum/4286/m/49793.jpg) was approved on February 20, 2002 by Решением Городского Совета № 14-137Р (English: Decision of the City Council No. 14-137R). The description of the flag is as follows: "On the red cloth with a ratio of 1: 1.6 on the left side there is a blue bar with an indent from the left edge to half its width. The blue strip symbolizes the Yenisei River. Red is a symbol of courage, courage and fearlessness. To the right of the blue strip on the red background of the panel in the center is a gold image of the part of the heraldic shield of the ZATO Zheleznogorsk coat of arms - a symbol of ZATO in Zheleznogorsk - a bear in electronic orbits tearing the atomic nucleus. Golden color is a symbol of wealth, justice, generosity. The overall width of the symbol corresponds to the width of the blue bar." It features the old coat of arms plus a white vertical blue stripe near the hoist.
The current coat of arms (http://www.admk26.ru/UserFiles/FOTO/gerb.jpg) is as follows: "In a scarlet field, the silver sign of the atom is about three intertwined orbits, and inside the orbits is a gold bear with silver teeth and claws rising up straight and turned to the right, tearing the silver core of the sign of the atom with its front paws, and hindered by two hind legs in two of three orbits".
The current flag (http://www.admk26.ru/UserFiles/FOTO/flag.jpg) was adopted by Решением Совета депутатов ЗАТО Железногорск от 30 октября 2012 года №30-169Р (English: he decision of the Council of Deputies ZATO Zheleznogorsk of October 30, 2012 No. 30-169R ). It was designed by Валерий Григорьев (English: Valery Grigoriev), Владимир Дюков (English: Vladimir Dyukov), Константин Моченов (English: Konstantin Mochenov), Валерий Григорьев (English: Valery Grigoriev), Ольга Салова (English: Olga Salova) and Кирилл Переходенко (English: Kirill Perekhodenko). The flag was inscribed in the Государственный геральдический регистр РФ под № 8026 (English: The State Heraldic Register of the Russian Federation under No. 8026). The description of the flag is as follows: "A rectangular red cloth with a width-to-length ratio of 2: 3, with the Zheleznogorsk coat of arms represented in the middle of the figures: a white sign of an atom of three intertwined orbits, and inside the orbits - a yellow bear with white fangs and claws, the front legs tearing the white core sign of the atom, and with its hind legs resting in two of three orbits".
The GIF flag can be seen here:
Sources: http://newslab.ru/news/479315 and Victor Lomantsov's "Vexillographia" website's entry (http://www.vexillographia.ru/russia/subjects/towns/zelezgor.htm) on this city.
For additional information go to Adm. Krasnoyarsk-26 (official website): http://www.admk26.ru/
Esteban Rivera, 27 December 2017